History and Evolution of Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property may sound like a modern-world invention, but it has actually been around since the development of civilization. Many sources pin the origins of Intellectual Property rights to the year 1421 when the world’s first modern patent was awarded to an Italian inventor. However, according to Former Lord Justice of Appeal Robin Jacob, the history of Intellectual Property law can be traced back to as early as 600 BCE. This article explores the documented string of events that eventually led to our modern understanding of Intellectual Property laws, and elevates the conversation to answer a more pertinent question: So what?

Expert Insight: Many people shy away from studying history in general, believing that it is just tedious memorization of events based on evidence. While partly true that historians are essentially walking historical records, a significant portion of the practice involves many social applications, sociological methods, and anthropological theories.

Recognition, But Not Quite Possession: 600 BCE

The earliest records relating to Intellectual Property dates back to the 6th century BCE, from Sybaris in Ancient Greece. It supposedly granted a yearlong exclusivity for bakers to make their culinary invention. In a manner of speaking, the rise of Intellectual Property originated from the rising of bread.

Granting exclusive rights is a culture our modern society was born into. However, knowing that it has existed for millennia tells us of our valuation of individual talents. Although the ancient Greeks still considered their inventions as gifts from the gods, recognizing the human part of the innovation process proves that we are very similar to our distant ancestors.

Expert Insight: In the absence of written texts from prehistory, we can learn social values through artifacts. For instance, remains of animals bearing early forms of branding indicate that early humans attributed produce quality with the method of growing. This idea of adding a separate value on the maker – and, in extension, on how they care for their animals – starkly emulate the modern trademark and patent virtues.

Backstep Into the Dark Ages

However, the resemblance of our values to ancient views would pause for a long time with the rise of the Roman Empire. Religion came to the fore, and so the individualistic view on creatorship took a backstep and remained there since. At around 480 CE, Emperor Zeno overthrew the whole concept of sole proprietorship on artistic and agricultural produce. The Church gained absolute control over the entire Empire.

Nevertheless, through the centuries, religious influence over society waned as humanism reemerged through ancient texts. This movement, which in many ways is traceable to Aristotelian and Platonic worldviews paved the way for the Enlightenment. During this period of human appreciation, the first genuinely recognizable iteration of Intellectual Property appeared.

Let There Be Light

As we collectively emerged from traditionalism during the Renaissance, our appreciation of scientific and technological developments overtook the prevailing dogma. With the influx of revolutionary models of thinking came radical advancements in the field of engineering.

Expert Insight: There was a more significant premium placed on innovations with industrial applications. This is evidenced by the first patent with legal protection granted in 1421 to an Italian inventor. The 1421 license also closely resembles our current patent protections.

However, equal recognition towards works of art would receive legal protection much later during the European Reformation. While publishing guilds were already present before the Reformation, licensing of the written word was an often lopsided agreement.

In 1623, the Statute of Monopolies emboldened select groups of individuals to control their industry. Thus, publishers owned most of the rights associated with authored works. And with the author assuming the losing position, amendments were placed to arrive at the modern version of written word license: the copyright.

It was the year 1710 when the Statute of Anne empowered writers with renewable 14-year protection for their original works.

Polarizing Intellectual Property

Free thinking gave our society the agency to return ownership of inventions to inventors. But it also opened doors for other schools of thought, and often with cascading ideological implications. For instance, as we learned to value individual talents, we also saw how these talents are made through, and for, society. Whereas previous beliefs invalidate ownership by virtue of religious faith, newer ideologies either:

call to consign the rights to the general public, thereby removing profit from the inventor; or
advocate for private ownership of an invention.
While equally valid in their own right, these polarized approaches to Intellectual Property are to become the pillars of modern debates. The latter eventually evolved into legislation, while the former defined alternative social ideation.

From History to Current Reality

During the early 1800s, the idea of global protection of Intellectual Property rights floated among legislative bodies. And it was in the year 1883 that the Paris Convention brought clarity and cooperation among international jurisdictions. Three years later, the 1886 Berne Convention extended the same protection to written expressions. Within half a decade, trademarks were also granted international protection through the Madrid Protocol.

Resulting offices from the conventions later merged into a central governing body, the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property. This then became a United Nation office we now know as the World Intellectual Property Organization.

The transformation of Intellectual Property from Divine providence to valuable human talent took complicated detours and pitstops. However, the history of Intellectual Property reveals an imprint of how we evolved as a society. It tells us of our past values, of our collective thought, and of our remarkable capacity to strike a balance among individuality, society, and spirituality.

Although the roads we passed were pockmarked with glaring mistakes and surrounded by dark alleys, the fact that we do recognize the imperfections and reinvented today’s Intellectual Property tells another thing about us: we can change.

From History to Herstory

And we do change. As we diverge from misinformed beliefs we inherited from our old world, our growth accelerates on all fronts. Modern philosophies enable us to see past the borders and beyond colors. The movement is to take down the great walls dividing us as a society.

Being a bastion for innovation, the Intellectual Property industry also aims to bridge the gaps between sectors of society. World Intellectual Property Day in 2018 addressed the disparity between men and women in the field. This led to world organizations consolidating empowerment efforts for women in the field of innovation and development. Within a few years, the involvement of women increased by over 53%.

After all, the law protects equally. Hence, this move toward equality. Learning the history of Intellectual Property law highlights the value we place on innovations. And this value can be transformed into economic value.

Considerations That Will Benefit Your Medical Facility

The challenges in managing a medical facility are innumerable. Besides being sensitive, everything always seems to require a lot of attention. Daily, you deal with a diverse range of issues revolving around your staff, the patients, equipment and so forth. As a manager or owner of a medical facility, such issues may have led you to search for solutions alongside effective ways of improving the business. This article contains six factors you should consider to overcome some common challenges and make sound improvements to your facility, so keep reading!

Use quality medical equipment

This is where a lot of focus is necessary. Low-quality medical equipment can lead to poor treatment outcomes, increased malpractice claims and legal battles, high overall costs and so forth. In the long run, such issues can affect the number of people your facility attracts as well as the number of customers it retains. Therefore, you need to make several considerations when purchasing medical equipment to ensure you get high-quality equipment, such as electrocardiographs, surgical instruments, and BFW’s surgical headlights. In addition, you should ensure that they are durable and as advanced as they can be.

For instance, you need to make sure that your surgical lights adhere to the International Electrotechnical Commission’s (IEC) surgical lighting standards of temperature management and color temperature.

Mind your aesthetics

Most medical facilities focus so much on functionality. They make sure that their hospitals have electricity, a reliable backup system, clean, running water, and proper medical waste disposal. However, this is not enough; aesthetics matter. It pays when your hospital provides your patients with a warm and comfortable environment.

A prevalence report by the Federal University of Rio Grande showed that up to 60% of inpatients suffer from anxiety, among other common psychiatric disorders. This is because most of them fear medical results, injections, and contracting hospital-acquired infections. Making your hospital aesthetically appealing can boost your patients’ recovery process by reducing their anxiety and depression.

Therefore, consider adding fresh color to your walls with paint or wallpapers and improving the lighting. You can also install an aquarium, incorporate indoor potted flowers, and add cool lighting to the décor. These could make your facility preferable.

Employ highly qualified personnel

It is common knowledge that medical practitioners are some of the most learned professionals in the world. In addition to that, you should settle for employees who are more than book smart. Your facility needs ethical workers who not only enjoy their work, but stick to codes of conduct and rules. You should also ensure that your workers are frequently trained on emerging issues to make them dependable in emergency cases.

Furthermore, it would help if you kept your personnel highly motivated. You can achieve this by appreciating their work, improving appointment scheduling, and giving them good pay and days off. Motivating your staff is a good way to make them work more passionately, thus enhancing your facility’s service delivery.

Focus on customer relations

Hospitals are more than just treatment centers; they provide a social environment where people interact. Therefore, like any other business, your patients need to feel appreciated and understood, not just treated and discharged. Running your facility in a patient-centered approach makes it more hospitable.

To achieve this, you need to train your staff on essential communication skills ranging from simple greetings to breaking bad news. Your team members need to be good listeners who are careful about their patients’ needs. Your facility should offer clear communication with patients, especially when explaining diagnostics and treatment options.

Have a proper data center

A proper data collection and analysis department helps provide critical information on how to manage the institution properly. This can help you reduce errors that occur as a result of information mix-up. For example, you need to be aware of a drug scarcity situation as soon as it occurs as well as when purchases need to be made, and other critical issues like what feedback your patients give. You also need to have up-to-date medical records to reduce the chances of having a misdiagnosis and help you make timely follow-ups with your patients.

Give back to society

Every facility exists within a community. It is appropriate that your facility gets involved in community-based activities every once in a while to build credibility and trust. Activities your facility can organize or participate in include: getting involved in medical camps, partnering with NGOs to provide some medical services to the vulnerable, family fun days, and tree planting events.

Conclusion

So, if you’ve been looking for ideas on how to improve your medical facility you should consider updating your medical equipment, improving your aesthetics, employing highly qualified personnel, focusing on customer relations, establishing a proper data center, and giving back to society. These ideas may be all you need to achieve your desired results.

6 Negotiating Steps Used By Effective Leaders!

In, my, over four decades, of involved, in, nearly, everything related to effectively, leading, from identifying and qualifying, to training, developing and consulting to thousands of actual, and/ or, potential leaders, to serving, personally, as a leader, on several occasions, I realize, how challenging it is, to be a good leader! Unfortunately, far – too – few, organizations, consistently, use, a well – considered, relevant, professionally – designed, leadership training program, and, even – fewer, are sufficiently trained, and prepared, in all the necessities, needed, to be a quality, reliable negotiator! With, that in mind, this article will attempt to, briefly, consider, examine, review, and discuss, 6 essential, negotiating steps, the most effective leaders, must use, effectively!

1. Know what you seek/ want/ need: Whether, it’s negotiating, for events, important contracts, or seeking a meeting – of – the – minds, for the greater good, if you hope to be a leader, you must, begin, knowing and identifying, what you seek, want, and need, and how your organization, might benefit, by keeping these, in – mind! How can anyone, effectively, negotiate, unless/ until, you understand, what is needed, perceived, wanted, and sought, by your group, and its constituents?

2. Consider options and alternatives, with an open – mind: One must realize, effective negotiations, occur, when two parties, decide, it makes sense, for them, to come to some agreements, based on a meeting – of – the – minds, for the greater good! To do so, one must consider, with an open – mind, a variety of potential options and alternatives, which might bring about desired/ desirable results!

3. Know your negotiating adversary’s goals, needs, etc: Before negotiating, it’s important to do your homework, and, better understand, what your adversary, needs, seeks, and wants! How can you find common ground, without doing this?

4. Effectively listen: Although, for most people, their favorite sound, is their own voice, quality leadership, and especially, negotiating, demands, prioritizing, listening, effectively, and discovering/ understanding things, from their perspectives, in order to proceed, consistently, with the ultimate degree of genuine empathy!

5. Common ground/ win – win: Many individuals, falsely, believe, the objective of negotiations is what they believe, is winning, and/ or, defeating, the other party! However, I have learned, and strongly believe, after over four – decades, and about a thousand negotiations, discovering common ground, and creating, circumstances/ results, where both sides, feel satisfied/ content, in a win – win negotiating, approach, is the needed mindset!

6. Meeting of the minds: The ultimate goal of any, quality negotiations, is bringing about, a genuine, meeting – of- the – minds, for the greater good!

If you hope to be a quality leader, learn, and pursue, being a meaningful, effective, professionally – prepared, negotiator! Are you up to these tasks?